NEOM is born from the ambition of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 to see the country develop into a pioneering and thriving model of excellence in various and important areas of life. Large-scale developmental activities are planned in different parts of the NEOM development area. These development activities include both inland and marine areas and only few studies have been conducted in the NEOM region. Hence, baseline data are required to develop the Environmental and Social Impact Assessments (ESIAs) for the development activities of NEOM. As part of the project titled, Development of Regional Baseline Standards and Performance of Surveys for the NEOM Environment (RFP–100775), conducted in partnership with Wood, KFUPM developed standards for various surveys and conducted studies on landform features, terrestrial flora and fauna, seawater and sediment quality, benthic primary producer habitats, fishes, coral reefs, sea turtle nesting, and marine mammals. KFUPM conducted extensive field surveys encompassing a land area of 350 km2 and marine area of 150 km2. As the Red Sea is generally deep, a large vessel with an extended endurance at sea was also required to conduct the marine surveys. The baseline data developed by KFUPM are being used to establish ESIAs for the development activities of NEOM.